Windows calculator app in programmer mode DOES have a button to set the word size.
> “FF 07″ which would be 65527
Close! FF 07 is -249. This is pretty close to zero on a 15 bit scale which means reasonably close to quiet. By 15-bit scale, I mean 15-bits of positive numbers and 15-bits of negative numbers. The top bit is “sign".
> I am confused as to how it is changed to signed.
The sign bit (most significant bit) is a 1 (negative) so that requires a bit more work.
Answer: 2’s compliment the data to find out how negative it is. How far is the value away from 0.
1) Reverse all the bits. FF 07 becomes 00F8.
2) Add 1. 00F8 + 1 = 00F9
3) Convert to decimal. F = 15. 15*16 = 240. 240 + 9 = 249
4) Change the sign. -249
As a kind of pain in the neck, the programmers mode on the Windows calculator on my machine doesn’t seem to have a setting to tell it how many bits are in the registers. (yes it does - it defaults to 64-bit size so FF07 is considered positive). Screen shots to change calculations to 16-bit size in next comment.
Your text says 16-bit PCM data is “signed". So, for example, looking at one channel of a 16-bit stereo PCM file, and lets say I had two bytes (little endian) that were “07 FF” hex. I would reverse these two to get “FF 07″ which would be 65527 in decimal. If it is “signed", would not the max be +32768? I am confused as to how it is changed to signed.
In response to: Adventures in S/MIME - Sending encrypted email with MS Outlook
Comment from: [Member]
Karl Vegar Larsen comment Aug 29 2016
Utility to create certificates:
Something like Open SSL for instance?
And in Outlook.
Add the ability to update the certs as they expire.
As is, when you finaly get to the cert installed, all is good for a while. And then the cert on one end expire, lets call it cert A. Sourcing a replacement cert and installing it, is the same song and dance. But the other end doesn’t automagically update the cert the next time you send a mail. You’ll need to delete the contact, and re add it with the new cert.